Glossary

Buddhist Term

Alternatives

Meaning(s)

Similar Terms

Reference

Action Tantra

 

Generally, Action Tantra has two divisions: concentration that includes recitation and concentration that does not rely on recitation. Concentration that includes recitation has four branches: abiding on the basis of oneself (self-generation), abiding on the basis of another, abiding on the basis of the mind, abiding on the basis of sound.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Adventitious

 

Coming from outside, accidental, casual

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Affectionate love

 

The strong feeling that each other being is attractive. Affectionate love is necessary for great love and great compassion to arise.

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 54

Affliction

See klesha; delusion; disturbing emotion; disturbing conception

 

 

 

Afflictive emotion

See klesha; delusion

 

 

 

Afflictive obstruction

See klesha; delusion

The negative mental states and emotions which obscure the nature of reality and fuel the process of rebirth in cyclic existence

 

Sleeping, Dreaming and Dying, The Dalai Lama, Ed. FJ Varela, Wisdom Publications, 1997

Aggregate of Compositional Factors

Aggregate of Intellect or Formation or formative activity

1. The ability of the mind to remain upon its object. It is this that motivates us to act and directs the body to move. 2. Once we have a physical body, we have what are known as the five skandhas – the aggregates that compose our whole mental and physical existence. They are the constituents of our experience, the support for the grasping of ego, and also the basis for the suffering of samsara.

 

1. Dying Well, Geshe Tashi Tsering 2. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal Rinpoche, Rider 1992

Aggregate of Consciousness

 

 

 

 

Aggregate of Discrimination

Aggregate of Perception or Recognition or Cognition

1. The ability to recognize what objects are. 2. Once we have a physical body, we have what are known as the five skandhas – the aggregates that compose our whole mental and physical existence. They are the constituents of our experience, the support for the grasping of ego, and also the basis for the suffering of samsara.

 

1. Dying Well, Geshe Tashi Tsering 2. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal Rinpoche, Rider 1992

Aggregate of Feelings

Aggregate of Sensation

Once we have a physical body, we have what are known as the five skandhas – the aggregates that compose our whole mental and physical existence. They are the constituents of our experience, the support for the grasping of ego, and also the basis for the suffering of samsara.

 

The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal Rinpoche, Rider 1992

Aggregate of Form

 

Once we have a physical body, we have what are known as the five skandhas – the aggregates that compose our whole mental and physical existence. They are the constituents of our experience, the support for the grasping of ego, and also the basis for the suffering of samsara.

 

The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal Rinpoche, Rider 1992

Aggregates

Five aggregates

The five aggregates or ‘heaps’ are the components or faculties of sentient beings: 1. form 2. feeling 3. perception or discrimination 4. motivational or compositional factors 5. consciousness

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 245

Alertness

Attentiveness

1. Mindfulness means to be mindful of all that one has accepted to relinquish and to cultivate. Alertness means to be skilful in applying  to this relinquishment and cultivation. 2. Attentiveness, or mental scrutiny, keeps us on our gurad,so that when we are on the point of committing a negative action,we are aware that we are in danger of doing so and are therefore able to apply the appropriate antidote.

Mindfulness

1. A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva, translated by Stephen Batchelor, LTWA 2005 p. 172 2. For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 40

Altruism

 

 

 

 

Amitahba

 

 

 

 

Analytical Meditation

In tantra: Concentration Meditation

In concentration meditation, we gradually go through the different parts or aspects of the deity: we see the body of the deity, we see the colour of the body, we see the hands, the implements, and all the different parts of the body. At this time, it is as though we are holding many different objects in our mind.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Anger

 

A coarse mind that sees its object as repugnant and whose function is destructive; one of the six principal delusions.

 

Annoyance; frustration; irritability; hostility; rage 

 

Angry

 

It’s useful to be specific about the feeling of anger: inconvenienced, put out, bothered, cranky, irritated, disturbed, irate, mad, misunderstood, frustrated, upset, furious, fuming, neglected

 

Buddhism for Mothers of Schoolchildren, Sarah Naphthali, Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest 2009, p. 204

Antidote

 

1. For each Disturbing Conception there is one or more Antidotes. For example, the antidote to hatred is to meditate on love; for attachment the antidote is the ugliness of what attracts us, or contentment with what we have; for pride the antidote is to meditate on the aggregates, and prostrations reduce pride; for ignorance the antidote is the interdependence of all things and the movement of the breath. There are differences in the way the antidotes are applied: whether the emotions are confronted directly, or transformed through skilful means to help accomplish the welfare of others, or liberated through recognizing their nature.                                                                    If we are overcome by conceptual thoughts, we should practise the antidote of controlled breathing and focus on the breath.                                                                  The antidote to self-grasping is the wisdom realizing emptiness. The antidote to self-cherishing is bodhicitta.                                                                        2. Prostration serves to reduce pride; miserliness is counteracted by making offerings; the disclosure of wrong deeds is an antidote to the Three Poisons; admiring one’s own and others’ virtues serves as an antidote to jealousy; requesting the turning of the wheel of doctrine counteracts earlier actions of forsaking the doctrine; supplicating the buddhas not to disappear is an antidote to wrong views.

 

1. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2012 – 2013                                                      2. The Dalai Lama at Harvard, Tenzin Gyatso, Translated & Edited by Jeffrey Hopkins Snow Lion, 1988

Anxiety

 

1. State of being troubled or uneasy in the mind, (Psych.) morbid state of excessive uneasiness 2. A feeling of nervousness or worry

 

1. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976 2. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, 2001

Arhat

Arahat, Arhant, Foe Destroyer

1. One who has attained complete liberation                       2. Those who have destroyed without remainder the four gross and subtle hindrances (maras)                     3. An arhat or arhant is either one who has attained enlightenment (nirvana) or liberation from the cycle of existence (samsara). This goal of ‘personal liberation’ is particularly associated with the ‘lower scope’ of the Hinayana traditions. A group of sixteen arhats are traditionally listed and depicted as the direct lineal disciples of Shakyamuni Buddha. 

 

1. Wisdom Energy: Basic Buddhist Teachings, Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2000 2. The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002                                 3. The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 245

Arya

 

 

 

 

Attachment

Desirous attachment; afflicted desire

1. The disturbing thought that exaggerates the positive qualities of an object and wishes to posses it. 2. A deluded mind that sees its object as attractive and sinks into it and cannot separate from it; one of the six principal delusions and the three poisonous minds

 

1. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 247 2. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Autonomous

 

Acting independently or having the freedom to do so

 

New Oxford American Dictionary (Apple) 

Avalokiteshvara

Chenrezig

 

 

 

Becoming (as one of Twelve Links)

 

1. A new existence arises as a result of craving and grasping.

 

1. The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Bell

 

The ritual hand-bell represents the feminine principle of the ‘perfection of wisdom’, which directly realizes emptiness. When the bell is rung it is said to ‘proclaim the sound of emptiness’. The feminine bell is held in the left ‘wisdom’ hand, and is commonly paired with the masculine vajra, which is held in the right ‘method’ hand. The ritual set of vajra and bell essentially represents the practitioner’s main personal or yidam deity (vajra) and the deity’s mandala (bell).

See related vajra

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 92

Bhagavan

 

 

 

 

Birth (as one of the Twelve Links)

 

Due to the causes and conditions of the preceding links, the consciousness takes birth in one of the six realms.

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Black Foods

 

Meat, eggs, onion, garlic, radish. These are said to unbalance the right and left sides of the brain, and agitate the mind, so that it is less suitable for meditating.

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Blessing an Object

 

When we talk about blessing an object, you may think that we blow mantras on it. What we actually have to do is to change the nature of the substances we are offering, because the objects that we experience usually give us only contaminated joy. We have to change their nature so that they are able to offer uncontaminated bliss or joy, and this can only come about through blessing them. We cannot bless them in our ordinary state.This is why we transform ourselves into Chenrezig or another deity.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Bodhicitta

Awakening mind; the mind of awakening

1. The mind of enlightenment; bodhicitta is a key word in the Mahayana. On the relative or conventional level, it is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all beings and the practices necessary to do this. On the absolute level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature of self and phenomena. 2. A mind infused with aspiration to attain the state of buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings. This is the entrance to and the motivation behind the Bodhisattva’s way of life.

Conventional bodhicitta; ultimate bodhicitta

1. For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness he Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 131 2. A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva, translated by Stephen Batchelor, LTWA 2005 p. 169

Bodhicitta, Types of

 

1. Ultimate Bodhicitta 2. Conventional Bodhicitta      2.1 Effortful conventional bodhicitta 2.2 Spontaneous conventional bodhicitta                                                    2.2.1 Spontaneous wishing conventional bodhicitta       2.2.2 Spontaneous engaging conventional bodhicitta

 

Bodhicitta Module, Discovering Buddhism Course, presented by Ven Thubten Dondrub, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 26 Oct 2006

Bodhisattva

 

An ‘enlightenment being’. In Theravada, one on the path to buddhahood, a future buddha; in the Mahayana, a bodhisattva is a being who, motivated by compassion, strives for the attainment of full and perfect buddhahood.

 

 

Treasures of the Buddha, Tom Lowenstein, Duncan Baird Publishers, 2011.

Bodies of a Buddha 

See Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, Nirmanakaya

1. Body of Truth or wisdom consciousness; Body of Enjoyment or spontaneous speech; Body of Form or physical body 2. The nirmanakaya represents the purified form aggregate; the sambhogakaya is the purified aspect of speech; the dharmakaya is the purified mind. The empty aspect of the dharmakaya is called he True Nature Body. the word “body” refers to a collection of qualities. 3. The kayas or bodies of a buddha refer not only to the physical form but also to the various aspects or dimensions in which a buddha’s enlightened qualities and attributes arise. The Hinayana or lesser vehicle specifies two distinct bodies of a buddha: the dharmakaya or buddha-body of absolute reality or truth; and the rupakaya or buddha-body of manifest form or emanation. The Mahayana traditions specify three bodies: the dharmakaya or ultimate body of the fully enlightened mind; the sambhogakaya or enjoyment body of enlightened rapture; the nirmanakaya or emanation body of enlightened physical manifestation.

 

1. The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219 2. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, July 2014 3. The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 237

Buddha

 

A fully enlightened being. One who has removed all obscurations veiling the mind and developed all good qualities to perfection

 

 

Teachings from Tibet, Edited by Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston, 2005 page 237

Buddha-nature

 

1. The Middle Way School defines buddha-nature as the mind’s emptiness of intrinsic existence. The Mind Only School defines a “naturally abiding buddha-nature” and when this is awakened,  a  “transformed buddha-nature”. The naturally abiding buddha-nature or “natural nirvana” exists naturally in all of us, and the pollutants obscuring its expression can therefore be removed. 2. The clear-light nature of the mind possessed by all sentient beings; the potential for all sentient beings to become enlightened by removing the two obscurations to liberation and omniscience.

 

 

1. Essence of the Heart Sutra: The Dalai Lama’s Heart of Wisdom Teachings, translated & edited by Thubten Jinpa,  Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2005, page 82 2. Teachings from Tibet, Edited by Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston, 2005 page 238

Buddha-potential

 

Buddha-potential is the potential to become enlightened. Whilst there is a seed of loving-kindness there, it as to be activated and developed. We are not filled with loving-kindness innately.

 

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, July 2012

Calm Abiding

Mental calm; shamatha; one-pointed concentration

Stabilization arising from meditation conjoined with special pliancy

 

Teachings from Tibet, Edited by Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston, 2005 page 245

Chakras

Energy Wheels

Focal points along the Central Channel

 

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Chakravartin

 

Wheel turner’; in Indian legend, either a world ruler or a great spiritual leader.

 

Treasures of the Buddha, Tom Lowenstein, Duncan Baird Publishers, 2011.

Channels of the Vajra Body

Nadi

 

 

 

Chenrezig

 

Deity representing compassion

 

 

Clear Light Mind of Death

Fundamental clear light mind; most subtle mind

At death, the grosser aspects of mind that depend in part on the brain, disappear. The fundamental clear light mind does not depend physically on the brain, so it remains after the brain has ceased to function and the breathing has stopped. The mind that goes to the next life is the clear light mind of death, which is the same as the fundamental clear light mind and the subtlest of the three levels of mind. It rides on a subtle wind. Our fundamental, clear-light mind and the subtle wind on which it rides comprise our buddha-nature.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, Sep 2013, Jan 2014

Compassion

 

1. Compassion can be roughly defined in terms of a state of mind that is non-violent, non-harming and non-aggressive. It is a mental attitude that is based on the wish for others to be free of their suffering and is associated with a sense of commitment, responsibility, and respect towards the other. There is also a sense to the word that can include a wish for good things for oneself. 2. Compassion is the wish for all sentient beings to be free from suffering and its causes. 3. I wish others to be free from suffering and its causes. Compassion requires a positive, optimistic, courageous mind that enables us to bear not only our own suffering but also that of others. An obstacle to developing compassion is our sense of alienation from people. 4. The sincere wish that others be separated from their physical and mental suffering and the feeling that their freedom from suffering is more important than one’s own; a prerequisite for the development of bodhicitta. 5. Compassion isn’t about feeling sorry for people, in the sense of a patronizing form of pity.

 

Great compassion; bodhicitta; pity; sorrow; sadness; empathy; sympathy

1. The Art of Happiness: A Handbook for Living By His Holiness the Dalai Lama and Howard C Cutler, Hodder Australia, 2005 2. Buddhism for Beginners, Thubten Chodron, Snow Lion, 2001, p. 151 3. Teaching from Ven. Thubten Dondrub,1 July 2004

Compositional factors (as one of the Five Aggregates)

mental formations, impulses, volition

Types of mental habits, thoughts, ideas, opinions, prejudices, compulsions, and decisions triggered by an object.

 

Wikipedia, the Five Skandhas

Concentration

Single-pointed placement; samatha

Concentration has the attribute of the mind being able to remain on the object indefinitely. Concentration is the Lord of the Mind; with it you can control the mind. Concentration has two qualities: lack of distraction and abiding on the object. Concentration is the essence of calm abiding.

Calm abiding

Geshe Sonam’s teachings, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, June 2012.

Concomitant

 

Naturally accompanying or associated

 

New Oxford American Dictionary (Apple) 

Consciousness (as one of the Five Aggregates)

Mind

1. Consciousness as a continuity of actions has two aspects, the moment of causal action and the moment of resulting experience. 2. Discernment, cognizance, series of rapidly changing interconnected discrete acts of cognizance, the base that supports all experience

 

1. The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7 2. Wikipedia, the Five Skandhas

Contact (as one of the Twelve Links)

 

The meeting of the senses and their objects, producing the experience of phenomena.

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Contaminated Phenomena

 

Phenomena aare called contaminated if they increase the afflicted states of mind that lead to suffering; all phenomena are contaminated except those in the following four categories: the three uncompounded phenomena (space and the two types of cessation) and phenomena included in the truth of the path

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 2, p. 448

Contradictory Modes of Apprehension

 

The way ignorant self-grasping apprehends its object and the way that the wisdom realising emptiness apprehends its object are contradictory. Ignorant self-grasping conceives the object as existing from its own side without depending on causes and conditions, or being made up of parts, or being merely designated by language and conception.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Conventional Bodhicitta

Relative bodhicitta;

On the relative or conventional level, it is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all beings and the practices necessary to do this. 2. There are two types of conventional bodhicitta: (1) Effortful, contrived, deliberate, fabricated bodhicitta, and (2) Spontaneous bodhicitta that arises without effort. This is further sub-divided into Wishing Bodhicitta and Engaging Bodhicitta

Ultimate bodhicitta; bodhicitta

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness he Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 131 2. Teaching from Ven. Thubten Dondrub,10 June 2004

Craving (as one of the Twelve Links)

 

Subsequent to feeling, there is the desire to experience pleasure or avoid displeasure. Desire is stimulated by perception and emotions leading to more attachment to the world of appearances.

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Death

Old Age and Death

1. As one of the Twelve Links  – when the causes and conditions that sustain the physical form are exhausted,, death occurs. Yet, as long as there is still ignorance, these links continue to inter-dependently perpetuate samsara and its sufferings.

 

1. The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Dedicating the Merit

 

At the conclusion of our meditation or at the end of the day, we dedicate the merit – the spiritual benefit and power our positive actions generate – to the immediate and ultimate happiness of all beings

 

Facing Death & Finding Hope, Christine Longaker, Broadway Books, 2001, page 63

Defilement

See klesha; delusion

 

 

 

Delusion

Affliction; defilement; disturbing emotion; klesha

1. An obscuration covering the essentially pure nature of mind, being thereby responsible for suffering and dissatisfaction;  there are six principal and twenty secondary delusions; the main delusion is ignorance, out of which grow desirous attachment, hatred, jealousy, and all the others

Disturbing emotion, disturbing attitude, negative emotion, afflictive emotion

1. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008              Teachings from Tibet, ed. Nicholas Ribush, LYWA, 2005, p. 238 2. Dear Lama Zopa, ed. Robina Courtain, Wisdom Publications, 2007

Dependent Origination

Dependent arising

The way that self and phenomena exist conventionally as relative and interdependent. They come into existence in dependence upon (1) causes and conditions (2) their parts, and most subtly, (3) the mind imputing or labelling them

 

Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 249

Dharmakaya

Truth Body, Body of Truth, see Bodies of a Buddha

The unlimited and unobstructed mind of an enlightened being, and, the accomplishment of one’s own purpose through the attainment of unexcelled qualities of mind.

Sambhogakaya; Nirmanakaya

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Dhyani Buddhas

Five Celestial or Cosmic Buddhas; Five Buddha Families

The five cosmic buddhas embody aspects of the supreme wisdom of the Buddha and his teachings, and collectively constitute Adibuddha or the Primordial Buddha, the absolute or supreme truth that is beyond the world of phenomena. The dhyani buddhas are employed in tantric practice and represent aspects of the psyche; they are also linked to the five elements, the five senses, the five principal energy centres (feet, navel, heart, mouth, head)The cosmic buddhas are Vairochana, Ratnasambhava, Amoghasiddhi, Amitahba (Amitayus), Akshobya. Vajradhara is the Gelukpa name for Adibuddha; the Kadampa school has Vajrasattva.

 

Treasures of the Buddha, Tom Lowenstein, Duncan Baird Publishers, 2011.

Discrimination (as one of the Five Aggregates)

perception, conception, cognition

Registers whether an object is recognized or not

 

Wikipedia, the Five Skandhas

Disturbing attitude

See klesha; delusion; disturbing conception

Attitudes and emotions such as ignorance, attachment, anger, pride, jealousy and closed-mindedness, that disturb our mental peace and propel us to act in ways harmful to ourself and others

Negative emotions

Buddhism for Beginners, Thubten Chodron, Snow Lion, 2001, p. 152

Disturbing conception

Klesha, delusion, defilement, disturbing emotion, disturbing thought, disturbing attitude

See klesha; primarily a reflective rather than a pre-reflective function of consciousness; ‘conception’ is meant in the sense of any subjectively conditioned mental response, whether emotional, as in attachment, hatred or pride, or intellectual, such as in mistaken views, doubts, etc

 

A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva, translated by Stephen Batchelor, LTWA 2005 p. 170

Disturbing emotion

See klesha; delusion; disturbing conception; disturbing thought

Disturbing emotions are born from conceptions that arise from fabrications of inherent existence (self-grasping). The ignorance of self-grasping is destroyed by the wisdom realizing emptiness

Disturbing emotional thought

Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2014

Disturbing thought

See klesha; delusion

 

 

 

Dorje

See vajra

 

 

 

Drops

Bindu

 

 

 

Earth Element

 

Hardness

 

The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219

Ego-Grasping

Self-Grasping

A mind that misperceives the true nature of phenomena; it is the root of samsara. There are two divisions of ego-grasping: ignorance grasping at a truly existent self either of persons or of phenomena. 

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Egotism

 

The wrong conception that “I am self-existent”; the self-existent I. The view of the self held by a mind that has not realized emptiness.

Self; ego; egoism; egotism; existence; self-existence

 

Eight Mahayana Precepts

 

From now on, I shall not kill, steal others’ possessions,   Engage in sexual activity, or speak false words,             I shall avoid intoxicants, from which many mistakes arise,                                                                                 I shall not sit on large, high, or expensive beds,              I shall not eat food at the wrong times,                            I shall avoid singing, dancing, or playing music,                  And I shall not wear perfumes, garlands, or ornaments.

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Eight Worldly Concerns

 

1/2 Like and dislike                                                     3/4 Gaining and losing                                                5/6 Praise and blame                                                       7/8 Fame and disgrace

 

From Kindness, Clarity, and Insight by The Fourteenth Dalai Lama

Eight Worldly Concerns

 

1/2 Being pleased when we have money and material possessions, and displeased when we do not have these                                                                           3/4 Being pleased when we have a good name, reputation and image, and displeased when we have bad ones                                                                          5/6 Being pleased when we have the pleasures of this life – pleasant sights, sounds, smells, tastes and tangible objects – and displeased when we encounter unpleasant objects                                                       7/8 Being pleased when we receive praise and approval, and displeased when we receive blame, criticism or disapproval.

 

Transforming the Heart: The Buddhist Way to Joy and Courage By Jampa Tegchok, 1999

Eight Worldly Concerns

 

1/2 Good and bad                                                           3/4 Gaining and losing                                                    5/6 Praise and criticism                                                          7/8 Veneration and contempt

 

What Makes You Not a Buddhist? By Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse, Shambala 2007

Eightfold Path

 

WISDOM 1. Right View 2. Right Intention          ETHICAL CONDUCT 3. Right Speech 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood                                                MENTAL DEVELOPMENT 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration

 

 

Emptiness

Shunyata; voidness; selflessness

1. The absence of all false ideas about how things exist; specifically, the lack of apparent independent self-existence of phenomena 2. The actual way in which all things exist; refutation of the apparent independent self-existence of things; voidness

 

1. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008 2. Wisdom Energy: Basic Buddhist Teachings, Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2000

Enlightenment

Buddhahood; full awakening

1. The enlightened mind has three qualities: omniscience, unbiased love and compassion, power 2. Buddhahood, omniscience or full awakening; the ultimate goal of the Mahayana practitioner, attained when all faults have been removed from the mind and all realisations completed; a state of mind characterised by the perfections of compassion, wisdom and power.

 

1. Geshe Sonam teachings, Hayagriva, 2014 2. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 249

Equanimity

Equilibrium

1. Equal attitudes toward friend, enemy and stranger 2. Absence of the usual discrimination of sentient beings into friend, enemy and stranger, deriving from the realization that all sentient beings are equal in wanting happiness and not wanting suffering, and that since beginningless time all beings have been all things to each other. An impartial mind that serves as the basis for the development of great love, great compassion and bodhicitta. 

 

1. Geshe Sonam teachings, Hayagriva, Jan-Apr 2013 2. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Eternalism

 

1. The belief in the inherent existence of things, as opposed to nihilism; one of the two extremes 2. The belief that things have always existed and will exist, unchanging

 

1. Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive – Glossary 2. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Ethical Conduct of a Bodhisattva

 

1. Restrain yourself from all negative actions 2. Promise to practise all forms of virtuous, meritorious activity 3. Promise to benefit all sentient beings (vow that all your actions will be to benefit others and not to fulfill your own selfish purposes.

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 54

Fabricated Experience

Contrived Experience

As opposed to natural or spontaneous experience

 

 

Faith

 

1. In Buddhism, faith is not about blindly following dogmas and gurus, but rather relates to our personal capacity to practise the teachings. It is faith in the teachings and in how much the teachings can help us. Faith can be nurtured by: spending time with advanced practitioners, studying the Buddha’s teachings, increasing your committment to meditation and watching the results flow throughout the day. 2. There are three levels of faith. The first is clear or pure faith, a sincere, but rather superficial, trust and happiness to practise the Dharma. The second and stronger type of faith is the faith of conviction founded on some background knowledge, seeing the logic of the matter, and bringing personal experience to bear. As our logical and experiential understanding increases, we produce the the third and strongest type of faith: irreversible faith.

 

1. Buddhism for Mothers of Schoolchildren, Sarah Naphthali, Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest 2009, p. 210 2. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 550

Fear and Faith

 

The foundations or causes of refuge are fear (sense of foreboding) of being reborn in the lower realms, combined with faith (sense of conviction) in the Three Jewels as protection from this fear.

 

Teachings from Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2014

Feeling (as one of the Five Aggregates)

 

Sensation, sensing an object as either pleasant, or unpleasant or neutral

 

Wikipedia, the Five Skandhas

Feeling (as one of the Twelve Links)

 

The feelings of pleasure, displeasure or neutrality arising when objects are encountered.

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Fifty-One Mental Factors

 

Mental factors have the nature of consciousness, but are designated separately from the viewpoint of their various functions. Asanga identifies 51 mental factors:

Five omnipresent factors, Five determining factors,  Eleven virtuous factors, Six root afflictions, Twenty secondary afflictions, Four changeable factors         Five omnipresent (universal) factors 1. Feeling 2. Discrimination (Recognition) 3. Intention (Attention) 4. Mental engagement 5. Contact

Five determining factors (Factors of object discernment) 6. Aspiration 7. Belief (Attraction) 8. Mindfulness 9. Stabilization (Concentration) 10. Knowledge (Insight)

Eleven virtuous factors 11. Faith (Confidence) 12. Conscience 13. Embarrassment (Sense of shame) 14. Non-attachment 15. Non-hatred (Including loving-kindness) 16. Non-ignorance (Including wisdom) 17. Effort (Vigour) 18. Pliancy 19. Conscientiousness (Heedfulness) 20. Equanimity 21. Non-harmfulness (Including compassion) 

Six root afflictions (or the ten subtle increasers of afflictive states) 22. Desire (Attachment, craving) 23. Anger (Including hate) 24. Pride (Conceit) 25. Ignorance 26. Afflictive Doubt 27. Afflictive view (View of the transitory collection as self-existent I and Mine; View holding to an extreme; Conception of a bad view as supreme; Conception of bad ethics & modes of conduct as supreme; Wrong view)

Twenty secondary afflictions 28. Belligerence (Wrath) 29. Resentment 30. Concealment of faults 31. Verbal spite 32. Jealousy (Envy) 33. Miserliness (Meanness) 34. Deceit 35. Dissimulation (Pretentiousness) 36. Haughtiness (Inflated self-esteem) 37. Harmfulness (Lack of consideration for others) 38. Non-shame (Shamelessness) 39. Non-embarrassment 40. Lethargy (Mental dullness) 41. Excitement (Including surprise) 42. Non-faith (Lack of confidence) 43. Laziness (Sloth) 44. Non-conscientiousness (Heedlessness) 45. Forgetfulness 46. Non-introspection (Lack of attention) 47. Distraction

Four changeable factors 48. Sleep 49. Contrition (Regret) 50. Investigation 51. Analysis

 

Dalai Lama at Harvard, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion: Ithica 1988, page 74

Fire Element

 

Temperature

 

The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219

Five Aggregates

Aggregates

The five psycho-physical constituents that make up most sentient beings:l 1. Form, feeling, discrimination, formative activity, consciousness 2. The association of body and mind; a person comprises five aggregates – form, feelings, discrimination, compositional factors, consciousness. 3. Physical form, feeling, perception, conditioning factors, consciousness; the first four constitute a sense of individual identity

 

1. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 550 2. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 247. 3. The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Five Buddha Families

See Dhyani Buddhas, Five Dhyani Buddhas

The assembly of the Five Buddha Families evolved from an earlier concept of the Three Enlightened Families, which correspond to the three primary poisons of ignorance, desire and aversion. The three poisons also characterise the three lower realms of animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings, respectively. The three upper realms are characterised by pride (gods), jealousy (anti-gods) and a combination of all five poisons (humans). Essentially, the Five Buddhas represent the transmutation of the five delusions or poisons into the five transcendent wisdoms. The Five Buddhas form the basis of the geometric mandala, occupying the central point and four cardinal quadrants as the embodied emanations of their perfected qualities. The Five Buddhas are:                  1. Blue-black Akhshobya (centre) – ‘Unshakeable or Immutable’, also known as Mitrugpa, transmutation of anger into all-pervading wisdom,                                                                            2. White Vairocana (east) – the ‘Illuminator’, transmutation of ignorance into mirror-like wisdom,                                          3. Yellow Ratnasambhava (south) – ‘Jewel Born’, transmutation of pride into wisdom of equanimity,                                                                             4. Red Amitahba (west) – ‘Infinite Light’, transmutation of desire into wisdom of discrimination,                       5. Green Amoghasiddhi (north) – ‘All-Accomplishing’, transmutation of jealousy into all-accomplishing wisdom

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 234

Five Dhyani (Cosmic) Buddhas

See Dhyani Buddhas, Five Buddha Families

 

 

 

Five Hindrances

 

Sense desire (greed), Ill will (anger), sloth & torpor (laziness & sleepiness), anxiety & worry (monkey mind), doubt (afflicted doubt)

 

Buddhism for Mothers of Schoolchildren, Sarah Naphthali, Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest 2009, p. 193

Five Nalanda Masters

 

Referred to by Lama Tsongkhapa in his teachings on calm abiding and insight: Dharmakirti, Chandrakirti, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Shantideva

 

Teachings from Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2014

Five Non-Views

 

Desirous attachment, anger, pride, ignorance, doubt. With the Five Views, they comprise the ten afflictions.

 

Teachings from Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, Jan – Apr 2013

Five Omnipresent Mental Factors

 

Five mental factors accompany every consciousness and are thus called omnipresent mental factors:

1. Feeling: pleasure, pain and neutrality, not the object felt, but the consciousness that feels

2. Discrimination: discrimination of objects

3. Intention: or attention, moves the mind to the object

4. Mental engagement: takes the object to mind

5. Contact: distinguishes the object as attractive, unattractive or neutral

 

 

Dalai Lama at Harvard, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion: Ithica 1988

Five Paths

 

1. Path of accumulation (or merit)

2. Path of preparation (or joining)

3. Path of seeing

4. Path of meditation

5. Path of no-more-learning

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, Sep 2013

Five Preparatory Practices

 

Ablution, taking precepts, invoking the merit field, confessing negative actions, recitation of the Dharani of Immaculate Morality.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Five Sciences

 

There are four common sciences and one uncommon science. 1. the science of language, 2. the science of logic, 3. the science of crafts (technology), 4. the skill of healing through medical science, 5. the uncommon science of the Buddhist teachings and contemplative practice. 

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with David Patt and Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 1, p. 23

Five Views

 

View of the transitory collection, holding to an extreme, holding to one as best, holding onto ascetic practices, wrong views. With the Five Non-Views, they comprise the ten afflictions.

 

Teachings from Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, Jan – Apr 2013

Five Wisdoms

 

 The five transcendent wisdoms: all-pervading wisdom, discriminating wisdom, mirror-like wisdom, all-accomplishing wisdom, and equaniminous wisdom.

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 234

Foe Destroyer

Arhat

Those who have destroyed without remainder the four gross and subtle hindrances (maras)

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Form

 

External and internal matter

 

Wikipedia, the Five Skandhas

Four Floods

Four Great Floods

Birth, ageing, sickness and death

 

The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Four Immeasurables

 

Equanimity, compassion, love and immeasurable joy

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Four Modes of Reasoning

 

1. Reasoning of nature. 2. Reasoning of dependence. 3. Reasoning of function. 4. Reasoning of pervasion

 

Teachings from Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, Jan – May 2013

Four Noble Truths

 

The subject of the Buddha’s first turning of the wheel of Dharma: the truths of suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path to this cessation, as seen by an arya being

 

Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Four Philosophical Schools

Four Schools of Tenet Holders

(Hinayana) Vaibhashika, Sautrantika, (Mahayana)Yogacara, Madyamaka

 

1. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with David Patt and Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 1, p. 543

Four Reliances

 

1. Don’t rely on the individual, rely on the teaching. 2. Don’t rely on the words, rely on their meaning. 3. Don’t rely on the provisional meaning, rely on the ultimate or definitive meaning. 4. Don’t rely on an ordinary consciousness, rely on the arya’s wisdom mind.

 

Geshe Sonam teaching at Hayagriva, 2013

Four Seals

 

1. All compounded things are impermanent. 2. All emotions are pain. 3. All things have no inherent existence. 4. Nirvana is beyond concepts.                      Alternatives to Seal No. 2: All conditioned things are dukkha (suffering); All defiled or corrupted phenomena have the nature of the three sufferings; Everything that deteriorates is suffering

 

What makes You Not a Buddhist, Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse, Shambala, 2007, p. 3

Four Wrong Views

 

The '"four erroneous views" (phyin ci log bzhi) are to apprehend impurity as purity, to apprehend selflessness as self, to apprehend suffering as happiness, and to apprehend impermanence as permanence.

 

Gyurme (1987: p. 1431) in his treatise on the principal Nyingma Mahayoga tantra

Free Will

 

If you believe in free will, you believe that people have a choice in what they do and that their actions have not been decided in advance by God or by any other power

 

Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, 2001

Grasping (as one of the Twelve Links)

 

The impulse to seize the desired object once craving arises

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Great Compassion

 

1.  I will stop the suffering of others. I am going to do it. 2. The word great refers to both the object of compassion – all sentient beings – and the desire to take on the responsibility of alleviating their misery. It is the thought: “I will take responsibility for eliminating the suffering of other sentient beings.” It is more than a mere wish; and it does not rely on others to take care of matters. It is taking personal responsibility to free others.

 

Compassion; bodhicitta

1. Teaching from Ven. Thubten Dondrub,1 July 2004 2. 1. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 53

Great Love

 

Taking personal responsibility to lead all sentient beings to experience lasting happiness

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 54

Greed

 

Greed is a form of desire. However, it is an exaggerated form of desire, based on over-expectation. The true antidote of greed is contentment. Although greed arises from the desire to obtain something, it is not satisfied by obtaining it. Therefore, it becomes limitless or boundless, and that leads to trouble.

 

Healing Anger: The Power of Patience from a Buddhist Perspective by the Dalai Lama, translated by Geshe Thupten Jinpa, published by Snow Lion Publications

Gross Mind

Gross Consciousness

The consciousness associated with the brain and its chemical processes; the human consciousness is the gross mind that uses the human body as a support; each of the sense organs has a gross consciousness that uses the brain as a support

Very Subtle Mind

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 78

Guilt

 

Remorse or regret is about being honest and clear about the effects of our actions and taking responsibility. When we exaggerate the remorse in an obsessive fashion, becoming stuck, the remorse becomes guilt, an unhelpful mind state we use to punish and shame ourselves, such that our minds know no rest.

 

Buddhism for Mothers of Schoolchildren, Sarah Naphthali, Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest 2009, p. 206

Hearer

Shravaka

 

 

 

Ignorance

 

1. The root of cyclic existence; not knowing the way that things actually exist.                                              2. The innate ignorance of confusion which imputes a solid reality upon experiences. This is the basis for the mistaken belief in a true self and other.                        3. Literally, “not seeing” that which exists, or the way in which things exist; there are two kinds – ignorance of karma and ignorance of ultimate truth; also, the fundamental delusion from which all others spring; also, the first of the twelve links of dependent arising.                                4. Afflicted ignorance is a consciousness afflicted with disturbing emotions. Ignorance is also a mind that grasps at its object in a mode contrary to dependent origination.

 

1. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 251.     2. The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7                              3. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008                           4. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2012

Impermanence

 

1. The state of changing from moment to moment; all produced things are impermanent 2. The gross and subtle levels of the transience of all phenomena; the moment things and events come into existence, their disintegration has already begun

Opposite is permanence

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 308 2. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008, page 138

Imputation

 

The act of attributing or ascribing (something to a person or object)

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Inferential Cognition

 

For example, realizing the presence of fire through seeing smoke

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Inherent

 

Existing in or in something, especially as permanent or characteristic attribute

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Inherent Existence

Intrinsic Existence

1. What phenomena are empty of; the object of refutation or negation; to ignorance, phenomena appear to exist independently, in and of themselves, to exist inherently 2. A false and non-existent quality that we project onto all persons and phenomena; existence independent of  cause and conditions, parts, or the mind conceiving and labelling a phenomenon

 

1. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008 2. Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 308

Innate

 

Inborn, natural, originating in the mind

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Innate Self-grasping

 

The inborn, spontaneous grasping at self-existence that all beings in cyclic existence have

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 308

Instataneous Generation

 

We cannot have this gross physical body one minute and then the next minute say, “Oh, now I have become the deity. I have completely changed into Chenrezig.” It is very difficult to do this. We approach it by meditating on emptiness. We start by considering that all phenomena, including ourselves, and the place where we are sitting, do not inherently exist, do not exist from their own side. It is as though everything dissolves and disappears into emptiness, and then from within emptiness we appear in the form of the deity. We have to do this gradually; we cannot suddenly go from our gross physical body to the body of a deity.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Intellectually Acquired Self-grasping

 

Self-grasping learned through studying wrong philosophies

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 308

Interdependence

 

Dictionary: the condition of a group of people or things that depend on one another

 

 

Intermediate State

Bardo

By dying in an uncontrolled manner, we are forced to enter an uncontrolled intermediate state (bardo) and from there we experience uncontrolled rebirth leading to yet another uncontrolled life and death.

 

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Introspection

 

Its function is to check in which direction the mind is going; is it sinking into lethargy or is it distracted, excited?

 

Geshe Sonam’s teachings, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, June 2012.

Joyous Effort

Endeavour, Diligence

Finding joy in doing what is good

 

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 76

Karma

 

1. Karma refers to actions undertaken with intention 2. Action; the working of cause and effect, whereby positive actions produce happiness and negative actions produce suffering 3. Meritorious karma results in rebirth as a human or god; non-meritorious karma results in rebirth in the lower realms; neutral or immovable karma is neither positive nor negative 4. Literally, karma means ‘action’ and refers to the intentional acts of sentient beings. Such acts may be physical, verbal, or mental – even just thoughts or feelings – all of which have impacts on the psyche of an individual, no matter how minute. Intentions result in acts, which result in effects that condition the mind towards certain traits and propensities, all of which may give rise to further intentions and actions. The entire process is seen as an endless self-perpetuating dynamic. The chain reaction of interlocking causes and effects operates not only on individuals but also for groups and societies, not just in one lifetime but across many lifetimes.

 

1. Essence of the Heart Sutra, His Holiness the Dalai Lama translated and edited by Geshe Thubten Jinpa, Wisdom Publications 2005, page 95 2. Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008 3. Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013 4. The Universe in a Single Atom, Dalai Lama, Abacus 2006, page 116

Klesha

Disturbing conception, delusion, defilement, disturbing emotion, disturbing thought, afflictive emotion, affliction, afflictive obstructions, disturbing attitude

A mental factor that, upon occurring in the mind, has the function of producing turmoil in and a lack of control over the psyche

 

Abhidharmasamuccaya quoted in A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva, translated by Stephen Batchelor, LTWA 2005 p. 170

Law of Cause and Effect

Karma

Whatever karma is created will bring a corresponding result. The result of a virtuous action is happiness; the result of a non-virtuous action is suffering

 

Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, Pabongka Rinpoche, edited by Trijang Rinpoche, translated by Michael Richards, Wisdom Publications: Boston, 1997

Laziness

 

Laziness counteracts joyous effort and has three aspects: having no wish to do good, being distracted by negative activities, and underestimating oneself by doubting one’s abilities

 

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 76

Liberation

 

Freedom from the sufferings of samsara

 

Wisdom Energy: Basic Buddhist Teachings, Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2000

Loving-kindness

Love

The sincere wish that others be truly happy and the feeling that their happiness is more important than one’s own; opposite in nature from attachment.

 

Kindness; affection

 

Mahasattva

 

 

 

 

Mahayana

 

 

 

 

Mandala

 

The offering of a mandala containing the entire wealth of the universe is the highest ritual expression of devotion in the Buddhist tradition. In the ‘preliminary practices’ the ‘mandala offering’ forms one of the four essential practices of the Vajrayana path. These consist of prostrations, Vajrasattva mantras, mandala offerings and Guru Yoga prayers, each of which is performed a hundred thousand times.

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 84

Manifest

 

Show plainly to eye or mind, be evidence of, prove, display. Of ghost,to appear.

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Manjushri

 

Deity representing wisdom

 

 

Maras

Four gross & subtle hindrances

The four maras are: desire (the mara of Deva’s son), disturbing attitudes, samsaric aggregates, the lord of death

 

A Daily Meditation on Shakyamuni Buddha, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, FPMT, 2008

Meaning

 

1. The meaning of a word or phrase or gesture is the thing or idea it refers to or represents and which can be explained in other words  2. The meaning of what someone says or of something such as a book or a film is the thoughts or ideas that are intended to be expressed by it 3. If an activity or action has meaning, it has a purpose and is worthwhile

 

Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, 2001

Medicine Budddha

 

 

 

 

Meditative Equipoise

 

The state of calm abiding and special insight focussed on emptiness, seeing reality as it is.

 

Geshe Sonam’s teachings, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, June 2012.

Mental Factors

 

In Buddhist psychology, an important distinction is drawn between consciousness and the various modalities through which it manifests, for which the technical term in Buddhism is ‘mental factors’. For instance, when I see a friend in the distance, this constitutes a mental episode which may appear as a single event but is in fact a highly complex process. There are five factors universal to all mental events – feeling, recognition, engagement, attention and contact with the object. In this example, there may be additional factors such as attachment or excitation depending on the observer’s state of mind at that instant and the particular object that appears. The mental factors should not be seen as separate entities, but rather as different aspects, or processes, of the same mental episode, distinguished in terms of their functions. The emotions belong to the category of mental factors, as opposed to the category of consciousness itself.

 

The Universe in a Single Atom, His Holiness the Dalai lama, Abacus: London 2005, page 185

Mental Formations

Volitional Actions; Karmic Formations; Compositional Factors

Based on the belief in a true I, there follow mental inclinations, leading to actions that produce either pleasant, painful or neutral experiences

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Merely Labelled

Merely imputed; subtle dependent origination

The subtlest meaning of dependent arising; every phenomenon exists relatively, or conventionally, as a mere label, as merely imputed by the mind

 

Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 256

Merit

Virtue

1. Positive imprints left on the mind by virtuous, or Dharma, actions; the principal cause of happiness. 2. The positive energy accumulated in the mind as a result of virtuous actions of body, speech and mind.

Virtue; goodness; merit; righteousness; self-righteousness

2. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 253

Middle Way School

Madhyamaka

System of analysis founded by Nagarjuna which has two divisions: Svatantrika and Prasangika. With Cittamatra or Mind-Only School it is one of the two schools of Mahayana philosophy

 

Teachings from Tibet, Edited by Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeash Wisdom Archive: Boston 2005 page 241

Mind

Consciousness, sentience

That which is clear and knowing; a formless entity that has the ability to perceive objects; mind is divided into six primary consciousnesses and fifty-one mental factors

 

Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Mindfulness

Conscientiousness

1. Mindfulness means to be mindful of all that one has accepted to relinquish and to cultivate. Alertness means to be skilful in applying oneself to this relinquishment and cultivation. 2. We should use attentiveness to watch our thoughts, and mindfulness to judge whether we are acting correctly. In all circumstances, it is necessary to evaluate the need for a particular action in relation to the precepts. 3. The quality of non-forgetfulness; the ability to remember. With mindfulness you can recall anything you have studied or experienced.

Alertness; attentiveness

1. A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva, translated by Stephen Batchelor, LTWA 2005 p. 172 2. For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 41 3. Geshe Sonam’s teachings, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, June 2012.

Naga

 

The nagas are serpent-spirits that dwell in the underworlds below land and sea, especially in the aquatic realm of rivers, lakes, wells and oceans. Nagas can have a neutral, hostile or beneficial influence on human beings. Nagas are the underworld guardians of treasures and concealed teachings. Nagarjuna was perhaps the first person to receive a hidden ‘treasure text’ from the nagas.

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 72

Natural Experience

Spontaneous Experience

When we contact particular circumstances outside meditation the thought spontaneously or naturally wells up in us from the depths of our heart e.g. the thought of bodhicitta

Fabricated or contrived experience

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 100

Natural Nirvana

 

The fundamentally pure nature of reality, where all things and events are devoid of any inherent, intrinsic, or independent reality.

 

Teachings from Tibet, Edited by Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2005 page 241

Negative emotion

See klesha; delusion; Disturbing emotion, afflictive emotion

 

 

 

Nihilism

 

1. The extreme of denial; the mistaken and dangerous view that confuses emptiness with nothingness and leads to the denial of the law of cause and effect.       2. A consciousness holding phenomena to be completely non-existent.

 

1. Wisdom Energy: Basic Buddhist Teachings, Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2000                                        2. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Nirmanakaya

Emanation Body

a level on which the Dharmakaya manifests itself in order to benefit others, and, the buddha’s spontaneous manifestation in a form to which unenlightened beings can relate.

Dharmakaya; Sambhogakaya

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Nirvana

Liberation

The state of complete freedom from samsara; the goal of a practitioner seeking his or her own escape from suffering. “Lower nirvana” is used to refer to this state of self-liberation, while “higher nirvana” refers to the supreme attainment of the full enlightenment of buddhahood.

 

 

Nirvana With Remainder

 

According to the system of the Hearers, nirvana with remainder is when one has actualized nirvana but still has a remainder of mental and physical aggregates that are impelled by earlier afflicted contaminated actions and afflictive emotions

 

Dalai Lama at Harvard, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion: Ithica 1988, page 105

Nirvana Without Remainder

 

A nirvana without remainder occurs when nirvana has been actualized but there is no longer any remainder of mental and physical aggregates. These are called lesser nirvanas because only the afflictive obstructions to liberation have been extinguished; the obstructions to omniscience have not.

 

Dalai Lama at Harvard, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion: Ithica 1988, page 106

Non-Abiding Nirvana

 

Non-abiding means it is beyond the two extremes, that is, full enlightenment: it rests neither in samsara nor in the peace of the Hinayana arhats

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 50

Non-affirming Negative

 

The mere absence of the object of negation. Nothing positive is implied in its stead and one is left with a mere absence.

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 309

Non-Objectifying Compassion

See Three Types of Compassion

 

 

 

Object of Apprehension

Object of the mode of apprehension

1. For a person grasping at a self of persons, the object of apprehension is a self which exists autonomously, from its own side, without depending on any of the five aggregates or on the collection of them. 2. The object of the mode of apprehension is the main object with which a consciousness is concerned

 

 

1. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013  2. Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 309

Object to be Refuted

Object of negation

1. The object to be refuted is the true existence of the self of persons and phenomena. 2. What is to be negated or refuted or proven non-existent in the meditation on emptiness. 

 

1. Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 254.     2. Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 309

Objective

 

Belonging not to the consciousness or the perceiving or thinking subject, but to what is presented to this; external to the mind; real

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Om

 

The syllable Om when written in Tibetan has three elements one on top of the other, and they signify the body, speech and mind of Buddha. Saying Om makes an offering inexhaustible.

 

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Om Ah Hum (to bless an offering)              

 

Om signifies the body, speech and mind of the Buddha and as such makes an offering inexhaustible. Ah transforms the offering into the nature of nectar. Hum purifies any imperfections in the offering.

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Parinirvana

 

The state entered when an arhat or buddha passes away at the end of his or her life

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 3, p. 557

Perception

 

Action by which the mind refers its sensations to external objects as cause

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Perishing Aggregates

Five aggregates; aggregates

The four or five aggregates that constitute a person. Both sentient beings and buddhas have such aggregates. 

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Permanence

See impermanence

Not changing moment by moment; permanent phenomena are not necessarily eternal, but many do not exist forever

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 309

Permanent, single and independent self

 

In this context, permanent means not arising and not perishing; single means not relying on parts; independent means not depending on causes and conditions. That the person exists in this way is to be negated.

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999, page 309

Placement Meditation

Also: One-Pointed Meditation. In tantra: stabilizing meditation

In stabilizing meditation, we are not focussing on individual parts of the deity, but on the deity all together as though it is just one aspect.

 

 

Pratimoksha Vows

 

The pratimoksha vows comprise the basic vows of monastic discipline. They come from the collection of teachings called the Vinaya. 

 

Web Archive of Mandala magazine, 2006

Precious Human Rebirth

 

A human life with the eight freedoms and the ten endowments

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Pride

 

Thinking highly of oneself without good reason; ordinary pride is a negative emotion; not to be confused with self-confidence

Divine Pride; self-confidence

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 83

Projection

 

Mental image viewed as reality; (Psychology) unconscious transfer of one’s own impressions or feelings to external objects or persons

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Purpose

 

1. The purpose of something is the reason for which it is made or done. 2. Your purpose is the thing that you want to achieve

 

Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, 2001

Reality

 

Real existence, what is real, what underlies appearances (real = actually existing as a thing or occurring in fact)

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Realization

 

1. There are three ways to realize the way phenomena exist: through true perception, through inferential cognition, and through dependence on valid quotations in which one has faith

 

The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002, p. ix

Realm of Nothing at All

 

One of the four formless realms at the summit of cyclic existence,experienced through the four formless absorptions said to be attained by practitioners of the Brahma Vehicle.

 

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 89

Refuge

 

1. Refuge in Buddhism is a ceremony, a commitment, and a statement of faith. A practitioner requests the refuge ceremony from a qualified teacher; some regard this process as conferring upon them the state of being a “Buddhist.” The rituals of the ceremony may vary slightly according to the teacher, but the core element is the practitioner’s commitment to seeking liberation from suffering. The triple gem in which one takes refuge is the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings/path), and the Sangha (the Sangha jewel one takes refuge in is strictly the community of monks and nuns; in the West, the term sangha has also become common parlance for a community of practitioners).                                                                2. There are three types of refuge: Causal or outer refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; Resultant or inner refuge in your buddha-nature; Secret refuge in tantric paths. The jewel of the Dharma is the most important refuge, the “real refuge”. The basis for the inner commitment to the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha is fear of being reborn in the lower realms and fear of  samsara, combined with faith in the Three Jewels.

causal refuge; resultant refuge; secret refuge

1. Web Archive of Mandala magazine, 2006  2. Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2014

Regret

Remorse

Remorse or regret is about being honest and clear about the effects of our actions and taking responsibility. When we exaggerate the remorse in an obsessive fashion, becoming stuck, the remorse becomes guilt, an unhelpful mind state we use to punish and shame ourselves, such that our minds know no rest.

 

Buddhism for Mothers of Schoolchildren, Sarah Naphthali, Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest 2009, p. 206

Remorse

See: Regret

 

 

 

Right View

 

Right view as the first part of the Noble Eightfold Path leads ultimately not to the holding of correct views, but to a detached form of cognition. It is the right way of looking at life, nature, and the world as they really are. It is to understand how reality works.

 

Wikipedia

Samantabhadra

 

 

 

 

Sambhogakaya

Enjoyment Body

a level on which the dharmakaya manifests itself in order to benefit others, and, the buddha’s spontaneous manifestation in a form to which only highly realized beings can relate.

 

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Samsara

 

1. The wheel or round of existence. The state of being unenlightened, in which the mind, enslaved by the three poisons of ignorance, attachment and hatred, passes uncontrolled from one state to another through an endless stream of psychophysical experiences that are all characterized by suffering.                                 2. The five aggregates subject to clinging                     3. The uncontrolled state of birth, death and rebirth, propelled by karma and delusion, the root of which is ego-grasping.

 

1. For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 134                        2. Valid Cognition by Dharmakirti         3. Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Self

 

In our naive view of the world, we cling to the feeling that there is a self that, in some sense, is master of our body and mind – an agent that is independent and bears its own distinct identity. This is the unchanging entity that some imagine goes from childhood to middle age to death. Others may believe that it is what is reborn in the next life. We think there is something there that retains its continuity over time. 

 

But Buddhists claim you cannot find any self beyond the physical and mental aggregates. There is no independent agent, master of body and mind. Buddhists reject the concept that there is a substantially real, enduring, eternal principle called “self”. This is the meaning of selflessness.

 

 

Essence of the Heart Sutra: The Dalai Lama’s Heart of Wisdom Teachings, translated & edited by Thubten Jinpa,  Wisdom Publications: Boston, 2005, page 90

Self To Be Negated

 

A truly existent self or “I” that appears to exist from its own side, without depending on any one of the aggregates or on the collection of them.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Self-Cherishing

Self-cherishing thought

The self-centred attitude of considering one’s own happiness to be more important than that of others; the main obstacle to the realization of bodhicitta

 

Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 256

Self-confidence

 

Knowing that one has the ability to do something properly and being determined not to give it up; not to be confused with pride

Pride

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 83

Self-Grasping

Ego-Grasping

Grasping at phenomena as existing completely independently of anything else

 

Transforming the Heart, Geshe Jampa Tegchok, Snow Lion:Ithica, 1999 page 310

Seven Limb Prayer or Puja

 

Prostration, offering, confession of all negativities, rejoicing in the virtues of holy and ordinary beings, urging the buddhas (especially those who have not taught yet) to turn the Wheel of Dharma, requesting the buddhas to remain until samsara ends, dedicating

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Seven Point Cause and Effect Instructions

 

Preliminary Step: Generate equanimity

Instruction No.1. Recognize all sentient beings as your mother 2. Reflect on their kindness 3. Develop an intention to repay their kindness 4. Develop (great) love 5. Develop (great) compassion 6. Generate the special altruistic attitude 7. Generate Bodhicitta

 

Dalai Lama at Harvard, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion: Ithica 1988

Shariputra

 

 

 

 

Six Senses

 

The five faculties of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch are the five organs by which the outer world is perceived, when allied with the sixth sense, the mental faculty.

 

The Buddhist Wheel of Existence, J Leschly & S Mager, aracariaguides.com, ISBN 978-0-9775771-8-7

Sloth

 

Laziness, indolence, lethargy, disengagement

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Solitary Realizer

Pratyekabuddha

 

 

 

Soul

Atman

The soul or atman has three characteristics: permanent, unitary and autonomous. It is unchanged from birth to death and beyond, is not produced, does not cease, doesn’t depend on parts nor on causes and conditions.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2014

Space Particles

 

1. Beyond the beginning of the material universe to a time when the universe was empty and remained in the state of what the Kalachakra Tantra calls “space particles”. These space particles are not absolute or fixed, but rather, like all matter, subject to the laws of impermanence and change.

 

 

1. Essence of the Heart Sutra, His Holiness the Dalai Lama translated and edited by Geshe Thubten Jinpa, Wisdom Publications 2005, page 95 The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219

Special Insight

Clear insight; penetrative insight; vipashyana

 

 

 

Subjective

 

Belonging to, of, due to, the consciousness or thinking or perceiving subject or ego as opposed to real or external things

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Subtle Dependent Origination

Subtle dependent arising; merely labelled; merely imputed

The subtlest meaning of dependent arising; every phenomenon exists relatively, or conventionally, as a mere label, as merely imputed by the mind

Dependent arising

Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 253

Suffering

Three Sufferings, three types of suffering

(1) Suffering of suffering (physical & mental pain) (2) Suffering of change (3) All-pervasive, compounded suffering

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Sukhavati

 

Pure Land of the Buddha Amitahba

 

 

Tathagata

 

1. A buddha, one who has gone beyond, with transcendental wisdom similar to the reality of all existence 2. A buddha when they remain on earth after enlightenment

 

1. Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Trijang Dorje Chang & Geshe Lamrimpa, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive:Boston, 2002

Ten Afflictions

 

The Ten Afflictions can divided into the Five Views and Five Non-Views. The five non-views are desirous attachment, anger, pride, ignorance, and doubt. The five views are the view of the transitory collection, holding to an extreme, holding to one as best, holding onto ascetic practices and wrong views.

 

Geshe Sonam teaching at Hayagriva, 2013

Three Great Purposes

 

Higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Three Higher Trainings

 

1. Ethics (avoiding the ten non-virtues)                         2. Concentration (locking the mind onto a virtuous object)                                                                              3. Wisdom (cutting the ego-grasping that grasps at inherent existence)

 

Geshe Sonam teaching at Hayagriva, 2013

Three Noble Principles

 

Good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end. 

 

Facing Death & Finding Hope, Christine Longaker, Broadway Books, 2001, page 60

Three Poisons

 

Ignorance, attachment and anger

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Three Purities

 

1. Purity of the teacher’s speech. 2. Purity of the disciple’s mind. 3. Purity of the teaching itself

 

Geshe Sonam teaching at Hayagriva, 2013

Three Realms or Worlds

 

In some contexts, samsara is spoken of as being divided into realms of desire, form and formlessness. The world of desire includes all the six realms. The worlds of form and formlessness exist only for certain types of celestial beings, who have attained these states through the four meditative concentrations of form and the four formless absorptions, respectively.

 

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 135

Three Sufferings

 

Suffering of suffering (pain etc), suffering of change, all-pervasive suffering

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Three Types of Compassion

 

1. Compassion without object, or non-objectifying compassion. This involves seeing that all phenomena lack inherent existence and generating compassion for sentient beings who are unaware of this reality. 2. Compassion for all sentient beings. We simply focus on sentient beings seeing that they are all suffering, and that there are different types of suffering. 3. Compassion with regard to phenomena. This involves seeing that all phenomena are impermanent and generating compassion for sentient beings who are unaware of this impermanence and instead hold things material or states of mind as permanent.

 

Non-objectifying compassion is also called non-referential mercy

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Three Types of Logic

 

1. Logic of valid cognition. 2. Logic of valid inference. 3. Logic of relying on the scriptures.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Three Types of Persons

Three Scopes; persons of small, middling and sharp capacity 

Those striving for small, intermediate and great spiritual goals can be classed as small, intermediate and great spiritual persons. They are divided according to the ‘scope’ of the goal they are seeking (hence the Three Scopes). They are also called those of small, middling and sharp capacity.

 

Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with David Patt and Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 1, p. 277

Threefold Analysis

 

The analysis of a doctrine to make sure 1. that it is not contradicted through direct perception, 2. that it is not contradicted through inferential reasoning, 3. that it is internally consistent.

 

Vast as the Heavens, Deep as the Sea, Khunu Rinpoche, Wisdom Publications: Boston 1999 page 148

Torpor

Torpid, torpidity

Sluggish, inactive, dull, apathetic, sleepiness

 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976

Tripitaka

Three precious baskets

A. 1. Vinaya Pitaka (rules & regulations for monks & nuns), 2. Sutra Pitaka (scriptures dealing with the practices of a bodhisattva incl. meditation), 3. Abhidharma Pitaka (scriptures on subject of wisdom) B. 1. Vinaya (rules for monks & nuns) 2. Sutras (discourses of Buddha) 3. Abhidharma (manifest knowledge, ultimate things, mind, mental factors, matter, nirvana)

 

A. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with David Patt and Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 1, p. 26       B. Geshe Sonam teaching at Hayagriva, 2013

Twelve Dependent Links of Cyclic Existence

Wheel of Life

Ignorance, compositional action or formation, primary consciousness, name & form, the six sense bases, contact, feeling, craving, grasping, human existence or becoming, birth, ageing & death

 

 

Twelve Great Deeds of the Buddha

 

Descending from Tushita, Conception into the womb, Birth in the garden of Lumbini, Training in the arts, crafts and sciences, Marriage to Yashodhara, the birth of his son Rahula, and the enjoyment of royalty, Renunciation of samsara, leaving his life as a prince, Practice of austerities and asceticism, and then renouncing them, Taking his place at the Vajrasana in Bodh Gaya, the seat under the Bodhi Tree, Victory over the leader of the maras, Papiyan, Attainment of enlightenment, reached while meditating under the Bodhi Tree, Teaching the Dharma, Passing away at age 83, in the town of Kushingara

 

Website of Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche, 2014

Two Obscurations

 

The deluded obscurations (obscurations of the disturbing thoughts) and the obscurations to knowledge (thereby possessing the all-knowing transcendental wisdom)

 

Commentary on Nyung Nay by Geshi Tashi Tsering, Chenrezig Institute (teaching of 2 May 1998)

Two Truths

 

Absolute truth (the way things exist) and conventional truth (how many there are)

 

The Direct and Unmistaken Method of Purifying Yourself and of Protecting Yourself Against the Causes of Problems: The Practice and Benefits of the Eight Mahayana Precepts, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2002

Ultimate bodhicitta

 

On the absolute level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature of self and phenomena.

Conventional bodhicitta; bodhicitta

For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 131

Universal Responsibility

 

 I alone am going to stop the suffering of others. This is neither ridiculous nor egotistical. Whilst countless buddhas are already trying to do this, every sentient being has shown me unbelievable kindness and only I can repay them. 

 

Teaching from Ven. Thubten Dondrub,1 July 2004

Vajra

Dorje 

The vajra is the quintessential symbol of the indestructible path of the ‘diamond vehicle’ – Vajrayana Buddhism. The vajra symbolises the impenetrable, immutable, imperishable, immovable, indivisible and indestructible state of absolute reality, which is the enlightenment of Buddhahood. In the right hands of peaceful deities the golden five-pronged vajra with closed prongs symbolises the perfection of the deity’s method or skilful means. In the right hands of wrathful deities, it is also a symbol of the deity’s vajra-wrath which is capable of destroying all negativities and illusions.

See related ‘bell’

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 88

Vajradhara

 

The form Buddha assumes when teaching the Vajrayana, a buddha considered to embody the supreme essence of the wisdom of all buddhas.

 

1. Steps on the Path to Enlightenment by Geshe Lhundub Sopa, with David Patt and Beth Newman, Wisdom Publications 2008 Volume 1, p. 536

Vajrapani

 

Deity representing power; “Destroyer of all hosts of maras, keeper of the esoteric”

 

 

Valid Cognition

 

An unerring and undistorted state of mind; a state of mind that is not deceptive at all, one where whatever is perceived accords with reality.

 

 

Mind in Comfort and Ease: the vision of enlightenment in the Great Perfection, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Wisdom Publications: Boston 2007, page 29

Vehicles

Hinayana and Mahayana

1. Hinayana Vehicle (includes shravakas and pratyekabuddhas): gaining freedom from the emotional obscurations for oneself alone, seeking liberation 2. Mahayana Vehicle (vehicle of bodhisattvas): with Hinayana as the basis, seeks to eliminate the cognitive obscurations (habitual tendencies left behind by the emotional obscurations) and attain buddhahood

Basic and Mahayana Vehicles; Lesser and Greater Vehicles

Mind in Comfort and Ease: the vision of enlightenment in the Great Perfection, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Wisdom Publications: Boston 2007, page 63

Very Subtle Mind

Resident Mind, Very Subtle Consciousness

1. Together with its supporting energy wind, the continuum of this very subtle mind has been with us for lifetimes without beginning. 2. The faculty of experiencing and being aware, the natural clarity of the mind; the consciousness that continues from life to life; there is no beginning to our consciousness, to our series of rebirths or to the particles that make up the universe; the imprints of past experiences on the subtle mind are the latent and unconscious tendencies that arise under certain circumstances and influence the way our minds react

Gross mind

1. Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001 2. For the Benefit of All Beings, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, translated by Padmakara Translation Group, Shambala, 2009, p. 78

View of the Transitory Collection

False view of the transitory collection; view of the perishing aggregates

An afflicted wisdom that grasps at a self of the person. There is said to be an intellectually acquired false view of the self, and an innate false view of the self. Eliminating the innate false view cuts the root of samsara.                                                                            The antidote to the false view of the perishing aggregates is the wisdom directly perceiving emptiness.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam, Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, July 2012

Virtue

Merit

Positive karma; that which results in happiness

 

Ultimate Healing by Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Wisdom 2001 page 259

Water Element

 

Cohesiveness

 

The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219

Wheel of Life

 

Usually refers to a pictorial representation of cyclic existence, whose rim is the twelve links of dependent origination and whose hub shows the three poisons of ignorance, attachment and anger. 1-ignorance 2-mental formations 3-consciousness 4-name & form 5-six senses 6-contact 7-feeling 8-craving 9-grasping 10-becoming 11-birth 12-old age & death

 

Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Wind Element

Air Element

Currents

 

The Buddhism of Tibet by His Holiness the Dalai Lama Snow Lion 1975 p.219

Wind-horse

 

The wind is the natural element of the horse. Nomadic Tibetans and Mongolians were master horseman. Both the wind and the horse are natural vehicles of movement, the horse carrying material form and the wind carrying ethereal form. Prayers are carried on the wind and in Tibetan the payer flag is known as the ‘wind-horse’. The energy of the wind equates with the unimpeded movement of the vital energies or winds through the physic channels of the subtle body, creating a potent current of movement on which the mind, as ‘wind-horse’, can ride.

 

The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols by Robert Beer, Shambala, Boston 2003, page 66

Winds

Energy winds, subtle energies, prana

The activity of all types of mind, both gross and subtle, depends upon their supporting winds and where these are travelling. As long as they flow through any of the channels other than the central channel, these winds activate the gross tourist minds that give rise to superstition and confusion, our ordinary life experiences.

 

Introduction to Tantra, Lama Yeshe, Wisdom, 2001

Wisdom

 

Different levels of insight into the nature of reality; there are for example, the three wisdoms of hearing, contemplation and meditation; ultimately there is the wisdom realizing emptiness, which frees beings from cyclic existence and eventually brings them to enlightenment

The three wisdoms; the wisdom realizing emptiness

Universal Love, Lama Yeshe, edited Nicholas Ribush, Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive: Boston 2008

Wisdom Realizing Emptiness

 

The wisdom realizing emptiness perceives the object directly, getting at its final mode of being, realizing its dependent origination and its designation by language and conception.

 

Teachings of Geshe Sonam at Hayagriva Buddhist Centre, 2013

Yidam

 

A personal deity chosen for a tantric student by an experienced lama. There are peaceful, wrathful and semiwrathful deities. One’s yidam represents one’s own particular expression of buddhanature, and therefore becomes a means by which one can manifest this nature.

 

Treasures of the Buddha, Tom Lowenstein, Duncan Baird Publishers, 2011.